National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF)

LNF header

The Welsh Government has made raising standards of literacy and numeracy in schools a priority and from September 2013, the National Literacy and Numeracy Framework (LNF) became a statutory curriculum requirement. Children aged 7-14 now have annual reading and numeracy tests. 


The LNF is designed to embed literacy and numeracy across the curriculum not just in English, Welsh and Maths. The LNF is a curriculum planning tool to help teachers of all subjects, think about how they can plan and provide opportunities for pupils to develop literacy and numeracy skills in practical ways. 

What’s in the Framework?

The LNF describes the skills that children and young people aged 3-16 are expected to develop and sets out outcome statements for each year. 

An artist working with a school will probably find it helpful to discuss with the teacher(s) which literacy and numeracy skills can naturally be teased out of the project. (These may be skills involved in the project done with the school or skills that the artist uses in his/her wider work.) Another approach could be to ask the teacher to explain the literacy and numeracy aspects they are currently working on – and consider any natural links with the planned art project. The teacher may want to use the outcomes of the project as a way of assessing how pupils are making progress in developing certain skills in the LNF. 

Literacy and numeracy, are divided into the following strands:  


• oracy across the curriculum

• reading across the curriculum

• writing across the curriculum. 


• developing numerical reasoning

• using number skills

• using measuring skills

• using data skills. 

It may help to download / print out the quick reference overview guide to the LNF and use it as a prompt to think about how you use these skills in your own practice and/or your work with young people. In particular, it’s worth bearing in mind that numeracy is NOT exactly the same as Maths. (The emphasis in Numeracy is on using ‘numerical reasoning’ skills (number, measurement and data) to solve real world problems – and on  being able to plan, carry out and explain the procedures involved in finding the answer).

The table simply gives the headings used by the Framework, rather than the detail. To find out more about the kinds of skills and levels, go to the Learner Friendly versions of the LNF which describe the literacy and numeracy outcomes that teachers work towards, by key stage and year but be aware that the class may be working at several different years in the LNF depending on each individual pupil’s level. 

How do teachers use the LNF?

Teachers use the Framework to:

  • plan lessons to ensure that everyone in the class has the opportunity to develop and hone the skills
  • help children with their own self-assessment activities and planning for learning
  • determine progress and report to parents
  • identify learners who may benefit from extra support or are working at a higher level than might be expected for their age. 

You will find the LNF at the following link NLNF and the teacher guidance and technical glossaries at LNF Teacher Guidance 

Training in how to support the LNF

Teachers are supported by the Regional Educational Consortia to improve literacy and numeracy.

Guidance for artists in working with the LNF is beginning to emerge to support their unique role in developing these essential skills. For more information contact the Regional Arts & Education Networks.

All the case studies  show how projects have helped develop skills identified in the LNF Framework.